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Using Calibration to Optimize Performance in Crucial Measurements
Utilizing Single-Ended to Differential Insertion Loss (SET2DIL) algorithm for validating high-speed differential transmission line performance on printed circuit boards (PCB), the Rohde & Schwarz (R&S) ZNB network analyzer is a high-performance network analyzer that provides a wide dynamic range with high accuracy, short measurement time and ease of use. The R&S ZNB network analyzer’s enhanced time-domain capabilities, coupled with the IPC-TM-650 approved SET2DIL methodology, enables post-processing of the network analyzer's time-domain reflectometer (TDR) and time-domain transmission (TDT) data to display differential insertion losses on PCB traces.
Signal attenuation and distortion from dielectric and conductor losses is a major factor in proper high-speed differential transmission line simulation and design. The insertion loss of multi-GHz traces must be modeled correctly for simulations to represent actual performance, and validated on actual designs to ensure simulation assumptions were met.
The novel SET2DIL algorithm is a method for performing a SDD21 four-port frequency domain measurement using a two-port time domain measurement. This methodology derives differential insertion loss (SDD21) using only single-ended TDR/TDT (or two-port VNA) measurements at a single probe location. This method, in conjunction with Rohde & Schwarz’s R&S ZNB network analyzer, will eventually replace current four-port measurements of two probe locations, which are appropriate for a laboratory environment. This technique allows much easier measurement of SDD21, making it acceptable for a wider variety of users, including high-volume manufacturing.
“Rohde & Schwarz is working on incorporating the SET2DIL algorithm into the ZNB Network Analyzer to provide unparalleled measurement accuracy and speed required for insertion loss measurements for high volume board testing and manufacturing,” said Jonathan Leitner, Product Marketing Manger – Network Analyzers at Rohde & Schwarz.
Built into to the R&S ZNB network analyzer is an enhancement factor that allows the lower frequency analyzer to replace higher frequency – and higher cost – units for time-domain reflectometer (TDR) and time-domain transmission (TDT) functionality. Compared to high frequency devices, the R&S ZNB analyzer delivers a broader frequency range for the time-domain transform (TDT) by one linear factor, meaning that the original sweep range and the measured sweep points are used, and no additional assumptions are made. With higher resolution enhancement factors, the measurement data is extrapolated using a linear prediction method. As a result, the resolution in time domain is improved.
The R&S ZNB network analyzer covers the frequency range from 9 kHz to 4.5 or 8.5 GHz, features a dynamic range up to 140 dB, a sweep time of 4 ms with 401 points, low trace noise and excellent stability. The ZNB has been designed to test demanding applications for the development and production of RF active and passive components.
The R&S ZNB network analyzer has a large touchscreen that allows users to access all instrument functions with no more than three operating steps. The screen offers ample space for results, displaying even extensive measurements in a clear and straightforward manner.
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