**Military Microwaves Supplement**

Recent Advances in Radar Technology

Using Calibration to Optimize Performance in Crucial Measurements

# MWJ Design Tools

#### Links to free online Design Calculators, Spreadsheets and websites with useful RF/Microwave Design Guides.

# Remcom Online Discussion Forum

**Remcom**

This online customer discussion forum allows users of the company's software to engage with other electromagnetic simulation professionals and with Remcom’s engineers and developers.

The forum offers many uses and benefits, including:

*Collaborative help resource

*Method to easily make suggestions and feature requests

*Intelligence and data source that will influence Remcom’s product development plans

*Community where current and potential customers can connect and engage with Remcom’s team

*Tool for crowd sourcing to vet new product ideas or conduct polls

Membership in the community is free and provides access to post topics, comment on others’ posts, upload content, and more.

# Complimentary IMS 2011 MicroApps CD

**Agilent Technologies**

The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium 2011 has just wrapped up and they are pleased to offer a complimentary CD which contains the papers from the Microwave Application Sessions! These presentations cover topics of relevance and interest to MTT-S members and anyone in the microwave community.

# Microwave Impedance Calculator

**Rogers Corporation**

This software is intended to assist with microwave circuit design in predicting the impedance of a circuit made with Rogers High Frequency circuit materials. The software also has some capabilities for predicting transmission line losses as well. The software is available from Roger's Technology Support Hub. Creating a new account takes about 1-2 minutes. Once created you will have access to all the features listed below. Additionally, you can configure your account to receive updates and information regarding Rogers' materials.

# TRL Calculator

**Electro-Photonics**

TRL (Thru, Reflect, Line) remains one of the most popular alternative calibration methods for measuring non-coaxial devices to the traditional short, open, load, and thru (SOLT), two-port error correction calibration method. TRL calibration is based upon an 8-term error model and uses three standards - thru connection, high reflectivity termination, and a section of uniform line (λ/4 longer than the thru line at the center frequency). The electrical length of the line is determined during the calibration and does not need to be known. The characteristic impedance, Z0 of the delay line is the only critical parameter.

Variations of the TRL calibration method are:

• LRL = Line, Reflect, Line

• TRM = Thru, Reflect, Match

• LRM = Line, Reflect, Match

The code for our calculator is based on the Agilent AN 1287-9 application note published in 2006.

# Filter Wizard

**K & L Microwave**

K&L Microwave's Filter Wizard software simplifies the selection of the right filter product for your application from a vast number of available designs. Provide the Filter Wizard with your desired specifications, and the software will return a list of products that match. If the Filter Wizard selection algorithm cannot match the criteria specified, you will be forwarded to our quote request page. Choose the Filter Wizard link to begin specifying and selecting a filter or the products link for more information.

# Mixer Spurs Calculator

A new method for mixer spurs calculation has been developed which is easier and more straightforward to use than the traditional spurs chart approach when dealing with the frequency plan optimization in broadband double conversion transceivers suitable for applications as multi-band, multi-standard and Software Defined Radio. A full technical article describing this new method can be found here.

An Excel spreadsheet calculator for this method can be downloaded below.

# AppCAD

The following RF design software is provided free of charge as a service to the RF and microwave design community.

Download installation file for AppCAD 3.0.2

- File name: "setup.exe"
- File size: 14.5 MB (14,491,753 bytes)
- Description:
*AppCAD*Version 3.0.2

Instructions: Download "setup.exe" to any convenient subdirectory on your HDD. After downloading, double click this executable file from your Windows Explorer to automatically install *AppCAD*.

# AccelWare

This Unit Conversion Tool is a powerful, intuitive, and easy-to-use utility for quick and accurate conversion between almost every possible unit of measure, from one system to another. The latest version includes more than 2200 units in 78 categories. The categories include: length, area, speed, mass, numbers, volume, time, density, force, pressure, energy, power, flow, temperature, angle, light, fractions, data transfer, and many more. Fully functional Online version now available.

# AlphiMAX P2P Signal Propagation Calculator

Determine whether a wireless link will work given the specific locations you are trying to connect, prior to purchasing equipment or climbing a tower. The Point-To-Point Estimator is a free web based tool with a very nice graphical interface tools that enables you to compare manufacturers, while taking into account the terrain of your area, terrain type, climate, antenna type, define fade margin and more. Use of a GPS database produces a very accurate elevation profile between antenna locations.

# Antenna Power Tools

Free software from Andrew for telecommunications system planning. The links below provide an overview, including system requirements and download information, for each program.

### All Systems

### Base Station Systems

- AccessoryMaster™
- Andrew Antenna System Planner™
- BSA Select™
- CableMaster™
- ILCALC™
- RET Cost Benefit Analysis

### CATV Systems

### Microwave Systems

# Antenna Design Calculator

The antenna calculator is a simple but very useful piece of software available to install under Windows 9x/ME/2000/XP and Linux. The upper section relates antenna diameter and frequency to gain and beamwidth. Using the scroller, set the beamwidth against the 3 dB or 10 dB marker, and read off the corresponding frequency and diameter; or set the frequency against the diameter and read off the beamwidth.

# CB / Amateur Radio Antenna System Evaluator

This JavaScript program evaluates the performance of your antenna system, computing the consequences of SWR and feedline loss, quad antenna and dipole inverted V Antenna design Calculators.

Quad Antenna Design Calculator (a javascript html)

Dipole Inverted V Antenna Design Calculator (a javascript html)

# Capacitor Design Support Software

**American Technical Ceramics**

Tech Select® is a design support tool that provides access to all electrical and mechanical parameters for ATC products. Included are Smith charts, S- Parameters, RF current and voltage, ESR, Q, impedances and more. RF parameters can be achieved at frequencies entered by the user. By selecting and sorting on the most critical parameters this program generates a complete list of product options with part numbers. View and print datasheets for the selected products. Download size is 8.9 MB.

ATC Quick-Calc Capacitor Calculation, American Technical Ceramics.

# Attenuator Calculator

Online interactive calculator from **Phase Matrix** allows users to dial in an attenuation value (in db) and see the equivalent resistor values for a three element Pi and Tee resistor network using standard 1% resistance values. Free from Phase Matrix.

# AVX SPICE Software

AVX has provided software SPICE models of popular tantalum and niobium oxide capacitors. A technical paper is available which outlines how to use these models and discusses some of the specific features which have been included in the SpiTan 2 updated package. The models are available as downloadable files for addition to the most popular CAD software libraries. There are two versions, one for OrCAD capture and the other for MicroSim and OrCAD PSpice software. Symbols are provided for each part type manufactured by AVX. These symbols can be "dragged and dropped" in the schematic capture portion of the package. Once incorporated, circuit simulation can be done. A new feature of temperature compensation has also been built into the models, thereby enabling the effect of heating or cooling on the circuit to be observed.

# Besser Associates - dB Calculator

dB, or Decibels always refer to the ratio between two numbers. For example, when one signal is 3dB stronger than another signal, that means that one signal is twice as powerful as another signal. The ratio of the power level of the stronger signal to that of the weaker signal is 2 to 1. Also Reflectometer, Butterworth filter, DBM to DbW calculator applets and Smith Chart Matching.

# Broadcast Engineering Calculators

These programs are written using HTML and JavaScript and will execute from within an internet browser. JavaScript calculators include: AM Common Point / Antenna Current Calculator, FM Transmitter Power Output Calculator, RPU/STL Transmitter Frequency Tolerance Calculator, AM Transmitter Harmonics Calculator, Free Space Loss Between Isotropic Radiators Calculator, 0.6 First Fresnel Radius Zone Calculator, VSWR Calculator, Coaxial Cable Loss Calculator, Coax Cable Loss/Antenna Gain Calculator, and Op amp Gain Calculator.

AM Common Point / Antenna Current Calculator

FM Transmitter Power Output Calculator

RPU/STL Transmitter Frequency Tolerance Calculator

AM Transmiter Harmonics Calculator

Free Space Loss Between Isotropic Radiators Calculator

0.6 First Fresnel Radius Zone Calculator

# Cable Performance Calculators

**Times Microwave**

This online calculator can be used to estimate the attenuation (dB loss), power handling capability, and transmission efficiency for some of the more popular Wireless Communications and MIL Spec cables at the frequency of interest (below Cutoff Frequency). Actual measured values may vary somewhat from the calculated numbers based on manufacturing tolerances, cable length, connectors, operating frequency, and measurement accuracy. The attenuation of cables with Bare Copper and Tinned Copper outer conductors can vary substantially from the theoretical value due to oxidation and therefore we recommend they not be used above 1 GHz. Note: the outer conductor of LMR cables is the aluminum tape.

# Capacitor Calculator (CapCad^{TM})

** Dielectric Lab**

DLI’s web based CapCad capacitor modeling software was developed to provide customers with an easy to use and readily accessible comparison tool for choosing the best Single-Layer, Multi Layer or Broadband Blocking capacitor to suit the customer’s needs. CapCad includes SPICE models with values that reflect typical performance at the chosen frequencies and temperatures that are of importance to an application. The user also has the ability to plot 2-port Scattering Parameters, Impedance, Q Factor or Equivalent Capacitance over any frequency span from 1 MHz to 40 GHz while maintaining the ability to adjust the temperature and note how it may affect the performance. CapCad also includes a Smith Chart utility and the ability to copy the S-Parameter data in touchtone format (s2p).

# RF Passive Design Calculators

This is a large selection of online interactive calculators for RF design, including attenuators, capacitance, resonance, RF traps, and microstrip impedance. Design, development and small scale manufacture of simple RF and Audio items. The calculators supplied courtesy of **Chemandy Electronics** are designed to be easy to use and follow a common theme and layout where possible.

Coplanar Waveguide With Ground Calculator

Matching Pi Attenuator Calculator

Matching T Attenuator Calculator

Microstrip Characteristic Impedance Calculator

Based on a formula by Brian C Wadell. Used for calculating the Zo of PCB transmission lines, showing the formula used.

Microstrip Characteristic Impedance Calculator

Active calculator using a formula from an article by Rick Hartley, showing the formula used.

Microstrip Characteristic Impedance Calculator Using the IPC-2141 Formula

Active calculator using a formula from an article by Polar instruments, showing the formula used.

Rectangular Capacitor Calculator

Relative Dielectric Constant Calculator for a Circular Capacitor

Return loss and mismatch loss Calculator

# RF Inductor Comparison Tool

**Coilcraft**

This interactive online comparison tool for RF inductors replaces manual methods and helps prevent false starts in the design of new microwave and RF circuits. The user enters his/her operating frequency between 1 MHz and 3 GHz, then selects up to four inductors to compare using pull-down lists to pick the product series and inductance value. The results screen provides a table showing specifications for each part at the user’s own operating frequency: inductance, Q factor, impedance and equivalent series resistance (ESR). Below that, these same parameters are graphed to show performance over the 1 MHz to 3 GHz frequency range. Each part is plotted in a different color to make it easy to distinguish. And because they all appear side-by side on the same grid, it’s easy to quickly spot the best performer at any frequency.

# Antenna System Designer

The Connect802 Antenna System Designer™ is an on-line calculator that creates a wireless network antenna system link budget design report based on various parameters that you provide. It will help you predict end-to-end performance and evaluate your network design when you plan a point-to-point, or point-to-multipoint outdoor wireless network deployment. You'll be able to analyze the radio link and tune network parameters for optimal link suitability. Plus, you'll get an idea of the wireless network design considerations (including Wi-Fi design considerations) that the Connect802 planners take into consideration when creating a wireless network design.

Main Page/Table of Contents

Main page, table of contents explaining all the potentially obscure values needed to run the Connect802 Antenna System Designer. You only need to supply the distance for the proposed wireless link, or the antenna tower height, or heights.

# Electronic Design Calculators

A substantial collection of dedicated electronic design calculators from Daycounter Inc., a rapid product development services company that caters to small and medium sized companies.

**Passive Component Properties**- Air Core Inductor Coil Inductance Calculator
- AWG (American Wire Gauge) Diameter and Resistance Chart
- Capacitor-Energy-Time-Constant-Calculator
- Coil Physical Properties Calculator
- Inductor Stored Energy Calculator
- Parallel Resistance Calculator
- Parallel Resistor Combination Calculator
- Plate Capacitor Capacitance Calculator
- Reactance Calculator
- RMS and Average Calculator
- Standard Resistor Value Calculator
- Steinhart-Hart Thermistor Calculator
- Straight Wire Inductor Calculator
- Solenoid Force Calculator
- Thermal Noise Calculator
- Voltage Divider Calculator
- Voltage Summer Calculator
- WheatStone Bridge Calculator
- Series - Parallel Impedance Conversion Calculator
**Electronics**- BJT Cascode Amplifier Calculator
- BJT Differential Amplifier Calculator
- BJT Transistor as a Switch, Saturation Calculator
- Comparator Hystereses Calculator
- How to wire an LED, Tutorial and Resistor Calculator
- JFET Buffer Bias Calculator
- MSP430 UART Register Value Calculator
- NE555 Astable Multivibrator (Oscillator) Frequency and Duty Cycle Calculator
- NPN Transistor Bias Calculator
- Op-Amp (Inverting) Resistor Calculator
- Op-Amp (Non-Inverting) Resistor-Calculator
- Op-Amp Voltage Calculator
**Power Supplies**- Flyback Transformer Design and Calculator
- Flyback SMPS Calculator
- Heat Sink Temperature Calculator
- Inductor Current and Maximum Power Calculator
- Voltage Regulator Resistor Divider Calculator
- Snubber Design Calculator
- Switching Power Supply Calculator
**RF**- Complete RF Amplifier Design and Analysis Calculator
- Decibel Calculator
- Friis Path loss Calculator
- Helical Antenna Design Calculator
- LC Resonance Calculator
- L Matching Network Calculator
- Maximum Field Strength Calculator
- Maximum Flux Density Calculator
- Microstrip Inductor Calculator
- PI and T Pad Attenuator Calculator
- Quarter Wavelength Transformer Calculator
- Rollet Stability (K) Factor Calculator
- Skin Effect Depth Calculator
- Whip Antenna Design Calculator
- Z-S-Y Parameter Conversion Calculator

# Digital Maestro

A wide range of applets on transmission lines, electromagnetic waves, linear antennas,signal integrity and EMC/EMI which appear on this web site, have been re-designed and incorporated in the companion CD-ROM for the book: "Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics" 6th Edition, by Ulaby, Michielssen and Ravaioli, (published by Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2010).

# Field Strength Calculator

This RF calculator has been developed by Compliance Engineering to convert between the various radiated RF field units that are referenced in EMC standards. EMC standards may reference limits for radiated RF fields in terms of V/m, dBuV/m, dBuA/m, pT, dBpT, Tesla, Guass, A/m, mW/cm^2 or W/m^2. This calculator enables the EMC test engineer to quickly convert the referenced emission limit (or the measurement unit) to the desired unit for direct comparison. .

# Field Strength Calculator

Conversions between electric field strength (E), magnetic field strength (H) and power density (S).Enter frequency and antenna gain, then any one of received power, electric field strength, magnetic field strength, or power density and this calculates the others.

# Material Analysis Program

This software is intended to assist with microwave circuit design in predicting the impedance of a circuit made with Rogers High Frequency circuit materials. The software also has some capabilities for predicting transmission line losses as well. The user will select the circuit materials and the circuit construction, after which the software will determine the predicted impedance and other electrical information.

Microwave Impedance Calculator

Flex Analysis

This is a program developed by Rogers Corporation to evaluate the comparative thermal/mechanical performance of proposed flex circuit constructions. A README text file is also included to provide information on the use of the program.

# Fresnel Clearance Zone Calculator

**Terabeam**

The radius of the Fresnel Zone at its widest point can be calculated by the formula listed below, where d is the link distance in Kilometers, f is the frequency in GHz, and r is the radius off of the center line of the link in feet. For further information on this formula, please review the figure below. Note: The final value represents a first order approximation and should only be used as a guide. No guarantees or warranties are implied accordingly. For a more detailed analysis.

# Tower Spacing Calculator

**Wireless Connections**

Enter the Total link distance (in Miles or Kilometers). If you do not enter an Obstacle distance (in Miles or Kilometers) this calculator will use the mid-point for all calculations (Note: assumes antennas at same height). Enter the system Frequency in MHz and then click the 'Calculate' button. (1 GHz = 1000 MHz e.g. 2400 = 2.4 GHz) The calculator will generate the radius of the 1st Fresnel zone only (at the obstacle point or the mid-point), the 60% (no obstacle) radius and the height of the earth curvature at the mid-point of the Total link distance

# Mixer Spur Chart Calculator

**Hittite**

This "Mixer Spur Chart Calculator" Java applet allows you to rapidly calculate the frequencies and power levels of single-tone mixer spurious signals when provided with a set of input frequencies and power level parameters for your frequency plan. Press "Calculate" to view the spurious frequencies in the chart, then click within close proximity of any displayed line in the chart to view the calculated power level of that spurious signal in a pop-up window. Continuously clicking your mouse cursor at various points along any frequency line will indicate the frequency that you clicked at. The pop-up window is designed to open up in the center of your screen, so if you locate this browser window you are now reading to either side of the screen you may find that the pop-up window won't cover the spur chart when it appears.

# PLL Phase Noise Calculator

**Hittite**

Synthesizer designers will find this tool useful for selecting the best HMC Divider, Counter, Phase Frequency Detector and VCO to simulate & achieve optimal PLL phase noise. Select the HMC part number below for each of the pertinent PLL circuit elements. Reference the HMC product data sheet to determine which part to choose based upon your frequency, phase noise, power output & functional requirements. You may enter your own key parameters by selecting "custom" from the pull down part number lists. For the Reference Oscillator & Loop Filter enter the parameters of the products you have chosen.

# Interactive Design Tools

**Phase Matrix, Inc**

A variety of online interactive calculators, allows users to enter values through tuning knobs and slide controls to set for desired performance level (i.e. attenuation) and obtain element values (i.e. resistor values). Calculators include: Tee & Pi Attenuators, Power to Voltage in a 50 ohm system, Converting dB to Ratio, mW to dBm, dBW, dBV & Volts in a 50 ohm system, Converting Phase Noise To Jitter (Part 1), Reflectometers Conversions: Interconverting VSWR, Return Loss, Reflection Coefficient and Mismatch Loss ,Designing Equal or Unequal Split Wilkinson Power Dividers, Cascading Three Stages for Gain, NF & P-1 dB, VSWR Mismatch Analysis and Power Uncertainty, Measuring Oscillator Output VSWR using Power Load Pulling, Microstrip Line Design, Designing Unequal Resistive Power Dividers/Couplers.

# RF MICROWAVE ENGINEERING DESIGN TOOLS

**INTER-CONVERSIONS & CALCULATIONS: **

REFLECTOMETER & MISMATCH ANALYSIS:

ATTENUATORS, COUPLERS, POWER DIVIDERS & SPLITTERS:

OSCILLATORS:

TRANSMISSION LINES:

CASCADING & NON-LINEARITIES:

RADAR & PROPAGATION:

MODULATION:

RECEIVERS